The number of alternatives can vary among items as long as all alternatives are plausible. Plausible alternatives serve as functional distractors, which are those chosen by students that have not achieved the objective but ignored by students that have achieved the objective.
They are a wonderful way to test higher-level learning, but they require careful construction to maximize their assessment effectiveness.
Strengths Associated with Essay Examinations Among the strengths of essay examinations, faculty who use them find they are a valuable means to measure higher-order learning and a wonderful way, when scored properly, to further student learning.
Given these strengths, essay tests require careful preparation and scoring. By nature, they require longer time for students to think, organize and compose their answers. The action verbs under each domain illustrate the kinds of activities that a test item might assess.
Use the verbs when constructing your essay questions so that students know what you expect as they write. While essay questions can assess all the cognitive domains, most educators suggest that due to the time required to answer them, essay questions should not be used if the same material can be assessed through a multiple-choice or objective item.
Reserve your use of essay questions for testing higher-level learning that requires students to synthesize or evaluate information.
Holistic Scoring The holistic approach involves the teacher reading all the responses to a given essay question and assigning a grade based on the overall quality of the response. Holistic scoring works best for essay questions that are open-ended and can produce a variety of acceptable answers.
Analytic Scoring Analytic scoring involves reading the essays for the essential parts of an ideal answer. In this case, you will need to make a list of the major elements that students should include in an answer. Your comments will help students write better essays for future classes and reinforce what students know and need to learn.
Your comments are also a good reminder for yourself if students come to you with questions about their grades.
Instructors should build limits into questions in order to save needless writing due to vague questions: This can happen when the essay question is vague or open to numerous interpretations.
Another good way to prevent students from spending excessive time on essays is to give them testing instructions on how long they should spend on test items.
McKeachie gives the following advice: Remember that essays require more time to score While essay exams are quicker to prepare than multiple-choice exams, essay exams take much longer to score.
You should plan sufficient time for scoring the essays to prevent finding yourself crunched to report final grades. Avoid scoring prejudices Essay exams are subject to scoring prejudices. The reverse is also true. To prevent this scoring prejudice, educators suggest reading all the answers to a single essay question at one time.
A life in writing: Preparing effective essay questions.This tips sheet contains a brief description of seven types of examination questions, as well as tips for using each of them: 1) multiple choice, 2) true/false, 3) matching, 4) short answer, 5) essay, 6) oral, and 7) computational.
Are short-answer questions better than multiple-choice questions for assessing the understanding of English language learners? Assessment is an essential and vital source of information about students' language-learning needs (Gibbons, ).
Sep 29, · It can be highly disputed between students whether they like taking tests that are short answer, multiple choice, or essays. Sometimes it is a one-sided deal, and other times it may matter the information and the course. Question types: Single answer vs. multiple answer. One of the basic differences between types of multiple choice questions is whether to let respondents choose multiple response options or just one.
Multiple Choice Questions Samples Classroom tests, college entrance exams, and various other examinations contain multiple-choice questions. You will encounter multiple-choice questions sooner or later; so, review some multiple choice questions example to get an idea of what they entail.
Multiple choice, true-false and matching items can be correctly answered through blind guessing, yet essay items can be responded to satisfactorily through well written bluffing.