The Social Security Retirement benefits program, explained. Updated September 26, Contents Enacted by Congress inSocial Security has become a vital part of retirement security for Americans for 80 years. It was designed to supplement income derived by other sources of income, but in many cases has become the primary source of income for many people.
Economic development by Europeans had as its necessary complement the ravaging of Aboriginal life. Especially if it is accepted that the pre Aboriginal population exceeded one million and that living standards were high, the subsequent history must all the less appear as one… Prehistory It is generally held that Australian Aboriginal peoples originally came from Asia via insular Southeast Asia now Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, East TimorIndonesia, and the Philippines and have been in Australia for at least 45,—50, years.
On the basis of research at the Nauwalabila I and Madjedbebe archaeological sites in the Northern Territoryhowever, some scientists have claimed that early humans arrived considerably sooner, perhaps as early as 65, to 80, years ago.
That conclusion is consistent with the argument made by some scholars that the migration of anatomically modern humans out of Africa and adjacent areas of Southwest Asia to South and Southeast Asia along the so-called Southern Route predated migration to Europe.
Other scholars question the earlier dating of human arrival in Australia, which is based on Initiation and social identity of the use of optically stimulated luminescence measurement of the last time the sand in question was exposed to sunlightbecause the Northern Territory sites are in areas of termite activity, which can displace artifacts downward to older levels.
In either case, the first settlement would have occurred during an era of lowered sea levels, when there were more-coextensive land bridges between Asia and Australia. Watercraft must have been used for some passages, however, such as those between Bali and Lombok and between Timor and Greater Australia, because they entail distances greater than miles km.
This is the earliest confirmed seafaring in the world. By about 35, years ago all of the continent had been occupied, including the southwest and southeast corners Tasmania became an island when sea levels rose sometime between 13, and 8, years ago, thus isolating Aboriginal people who lived there from the mainland as well as the highlands of the island of New Guinea.
Archaeological evidence suggests that occupation of the interior of Australia by Aboriginal peoples during the harsh climatic regime of the last glacial maximum between 30, and 18, years ago was highly dynamicand all arid landscapes were permanently occupied only roughly 10, years ago.
The dingoa type of wild dog, appeared in Australia only 5, to 3, years ago, which postdates the time that Aboriginal people began hafting small stone implements into composite tools some 8, years ago.
Whereas the dingo was introduced from Southeast Asia, the small implements appear to be independent inventions from within Australia. Within the past 1,—3, years, other important changes occurred at the general continental level: There is evidence for complex social behaviours much earlier, however, including cremation before 40, years ago, personal ornamentation shell beads by 30, years ago, and long-distance trade in objects before 10, years ago.
It has not yet been ascertained whether there were single or multiple waves of migration into Australia, although recent genetic evidence indicates multiple donor groups, whether from a single heterogeneous migration or multiple waves.
While there is no doubt that only anatomically modern humans Homo sapiens sapiens have ever occupied Australia, skulls found in the southeast suggest to some the existence of two distinct physical types.
However, most now accept that there was a wide range of variation in pre-European populations. It has also been argued that one group on the Murray River practiced a form of cosmetic cranial deformation that led to their different appearance.
Some have posited that Aboriginal cultures have one of the longest deep-time chronologies of any groups on Earth. Traditional sociocultural patterns By the time of European settlement inAboriginal peoples had occupied and utilized the entire continent and adapted successfully to a large range of ecological and climatic conditions, from wet temperate and tropical rainforests to extremely arid deserts.
Population densities ranged from roughly 1 to 8 square miles 2.
Estimates of Aboriginal population vary fromto more than 1, More than different Aboriginal languages were spoken and hundreds of dialects; see also Australian Aboriginal languagesand most Aboriginal people were bilingual or multilingual.
Both languages or dialects and groups of people were associated with stretches of territory. Their members shared cultural features and interacted more with one another than with members of different groups. These groups were not, however, political or economic entities, and, while language names may have been commonly used by groups as labels for one another, individual and group identity was grounded in much more locally oriented affiliations and memberships.
There was no consciousness of a shared national identity.The Social Importance of Rites of Passage and Initiations Introduction 1 A ritual is a traditional and ordered sequence of collective actions in which participants achieve a sacred purpose through an interplay between the sacred and the mundane world.
2 Moore and Habel define seven types of ritual, stretching over all aspects of life. AGENDA. The bulk of the Identiverse agenda is made up of proposals from the community, gathered via our open and public Call for Presentations, and carefully selected and curated by the Content Committee, comprising subject matter experts with recognised knowledge of their area, under the guidance of the Identiverse Content Chair.
Social Identity and Expressive Symbols: The Meaning of an Initiation Rituar GARY SCHWARTZ DON MERTEN Institute for Juvenile Research Chicago, Illinois This paper examines the relationship between expressive symbols and the identity trans-. The same 25 items are included in questionnaires for completion by the parents or teachers of year olds (Goodman, ).A slightly modified informant-rated version for the parents or nursery teachers of 3 (and 4) year olds.
Initiation is a rite of passage marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society. It could also be a formal admission to adulthood in a community or one of its formal components. It could also be a formal admission to adulthood in a community or one of its formal components.
Hazing (), initiation ceremonies (British English), bastardisation (Australian English), ragging (), or deposition, refers to the practice of rituals, challenges, and other activities involving harassment, abuse or humiliation used as a way of initiating a person into a group including a new fraternity, sorority, team, or club..
Hazing is seen in many different types of social groups.