Puberty Upper body of a teenage boy. The structure has changed to resemble an adult form. Puberty is a period of several years in which rapid physical growth and psychological changes occur, culminating in sexual maturity. The average age of onset of puberty is at 11 for girls and 12 for boys.
What time should the school day begin? School start times vary considerably, both across the nation and within individual communities, with some schools beginning earlier than 7: Districts often stagger the start times of different schools in order to reduce transportation costs by using fewer buses.
But if beginning the school day early in the morning has a negative impact on academic performance, staggering start times may not be worth the cost savings. Proponents of later start times, who have received considerable media attention in recent years, argue that many students who have to wake up early for school do not get enough sleep and that beginning the school day at a later time would boost their achievement.
A number of school districts have responded by delaying the start of their school day, and a congressional resolution introduced by Rep. Zoe Lofgren D-CA recommended that secondary schools nationwide start at 9: Despite this attention, there is little rigorous evidence directly linking school start times and academic performance.
In this study, I use data from Wake County, North Carolina, to examine how start times affect the performance of Essay adolescence education school students on standardized tests.
I find that delaying school start times by one hour, from roughly 7: The effect is largest for students with below-average test scores, suggesting that later start times would narrow gaps in student achievement.
The primary rationale given for start times affecting academic performance is biological. Numerous studies, including those published by Elizabeth Baroni and her colleagues in and by Fred Danner and Barbara Phillips inhave found that earlier start times may result in fewer hours of sleep, as students may not fully compensate for earlier rising times Essay adolescence education earlier bedtimes.
Activities such as sports and work, along with family and social schedules, may make it difficult for students to adjust the time they go to bed. In addition, the onset of puberty brings two factors that can make this adjustment particularly difficult for adolescents: Hormonal changes, in particular, the secretion of melatonin, shift the natural circadian rhythm of adolescents, making it increasingly difficult for them to fall asleep early in the evening.
Lack of sleep, in turn, can interfere with learning. A survey of research studies found substantial evidence that less sleep is associated with a decrease in cognitive performance, both in laboratory settings and through self-reported sleep habits.
Researchers have likewise reported a negative correlation between self-reported hours of sleep and school grades among both middle- and high-school students. I find evidence consistent with this explanation: However, I also find evidence of other potential mechanisms; later start times are associated with reduced television viewing, increased time spent on homework, and fewer absences.
Regardless of the precise mechanism at work, my results from Wake County suggest that later start times have the potential to be a more cost-effective method of increasing student achievement than other common educational interventions such as reducing class size.
It encompasses all public schools in Wake County, a mostly urban and suburban county that includes the cities of Raleigh and Wake Forest. Start times for schools in the district are proposed by the transportation department which also determines bus schedules and approved by the school board.
Wake County is uniquely suited for this study because there are considerable differences in start times both across schools and for the same schools at different points in time. While there are some minor differences in the exact start times, most Tier I schools begin at 7: Just over half of middle schools begin at 7: The school day at all schools is the same length.
But as the student population has grown, the school district has changed the start times for many individual schools in order to maintain a balanced bus schedule, generating differences in start times for the same school in different years. The only nationally representative dataset that records school start times indicates that, as ofthe median middle-school student in the U.
More than one-quarter of students begin school at 8: In other words, middle school start times are somewhat earlier in Wake County than in most districts nationwide. The typical Wake County student begins school earlier than more than 90 percent of American middle-school students. Data and Methods The data used in this study come from two sources.
First, administrative data for every student in North Carolina between and were provided by the North Carolina Education Research Data Center. The data contain detailed demographic variables for each student as well as end-of-grade test scores in reading and math.
I standardize the raw test scores by assigning each student a percentile score, which indicates performance relative to all North Carolina students who took the test in the same grade and year. The second source of data is the start times for each Wake County public school, which are recorded annually and were provided by the WCPSS transportation department.
Since buses serving magnet schools must cover a larger geographic area, ride times tend to be longer for magnet school students.
As a result, almost all magnet schools during the study period began at the earliest start time. Because magnet schools start earlier and enroll students who tend to have higher test scores, I exclude magnet schools from my main analysis.A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah Shop new, used, rare, and out-of-print books.
Powell's is an independent bookstore based in Portland, Oregon. Browse staff picks, author features, and more. Adolescence Sexual Development Essay Words | 4 Pages Life is full of changes and in the period of the adolescence the changes start to develop what a person will be in the adultness.
The adolescent stages can be divided to early adolescence ( years), middle adolescence ( years) and late adolescent (16 above) (Feldman, ).
According to Western psychologists, "adolescence primarily as preparation for adulthood and this period as a time of potential crisis brought on by the uncertainties of the physical and social transitions between life stages (Bucholtz, , p).
Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England. He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award.
Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers. February When we were in junior high school, my friend Rich and I made a map of the school lunch tables according to popularity.
This was easy to do, because kids only ate lunch with others of .