Introduction[ edit ] Athanasius Kircher 's map of Atlantis from Mundus Subterraneus drawn with south at the top. The dialogue takes place the day after Socrates described his ideal state. In Plato's works such a discussion occurs in the Republic.
The nature of epistemology Epistemology as a discipline Why should there be a discipline such as epistemology?
Aristotle — bce provided the answer when he said that philosophy begins in a kind of wonder or puzzlement. Nearly all human beings wish to comprehend the world they live in, and many of them construct theories of various kinds to help them make sense of it.
Because many aspects of the world defy easy explanationhowever, most people are likely to cease their efforts at some point and to content themselves with whatever degree of understanding they have managed to achieve.
Unlike most people, philosophers are captivated—some would say obsessed—by the idea of understanding the world in the most general terms possible.
Accordingly, they attempt to construct theories that are synoptic, descriptively accurate, explanatorily powerful, and in all other respects rationally defensible.
In doing so, they carry the process of inquiry further than other people tend to do, and this is what is meant by saying that they develop a philosophy about such matters.
Like most people, epistemologists often begin their speculations with the assumption that they have a great deal of knowledge. As they reflect upon what they presumably know, however, they discover that it is much less secure than they realized, and indeed they come to think that many of what had been their firmest beliefs are dubious or even false.
Two of those anomalies will be described in detail here in order to illustrate how they call into question common claims to knowledge about the world. Two epistemological problems Knowledge of the external world Most people have noticed that vision can play tricks.
A straight stick submerged in water looks bent, though it is not; railroad tracks seem to converge in the distance, but they do not; and a page of English-language print reflected in a mirror cannot be read from left to right, though in all other circumstances it can.
Each of those phenomena is misleading in some way.
Anyone who believes that the stick is bent, that the railroad tracks converge, and so on is mistaken about how the world really is.
Although such anomalies may seem simple and unproblematic at first, deeper consideration of them shows that just the opposite is true. How does one know that the stick is not really bent and that the tracks do not really converge? Suppose one says that one knows that the stick is not really bent because when it is removed from the water, one can see that it is straight.
But does seeing a straight stick out of water provide a good reason for thinking that when it is in water, it is not bent? Suppose one says that the tracks do not really converge because the train passes over them at the point where they seem to converge.
But how does one know that the wheels on the train do not converge at that point also? What justifies preferring some of those beliefs to others, especially when all of them are based upon what is seen? What one sees is that the stick in water is bent and that the stick out of water is straight.
Why, then, is the stick declared really to be straight? Why, in effect, is priority given to one perception over another? One possible answer is to say that vision is not sufficient to give knowledge of how things are.
But what justifies the belief that the sense of touch is more reliable than vision? After all, touch gives rise to misperceptions just as vision does.
For example, if a person chills one hand and warms the other and then puts both in a tub of lukewarm water, the water will feel warm to the cold hand and cold to the warm hand.
Thus, the difficulty cannot be resolved by appealing to input from the other senses. Another possible response would begin by granting that none of the senses is guaranteed to present things as they really are.
The belief that the stick is really straight, therefore, must be justified on the basis of some other form of awareness, perhaps reason. But why should reason be accepted as infallible? It is often used imperfectly, as when one forgets, miscalculates, or jumps to conclusions.
Moreover, why should one trust reason if its conclusions run counter to those derived from sensation, considering that sense experience is obviously the basis of much of what is known about the world?John Locke (—) John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century.
He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. I believe in miracles and I think that they happen to exist every day in my life and in many other people’s life’s around the world.
Believing in miracles has kept me through a wonderful life maybe not wealthy but happy and valuable. If you enjoyed this essay, please consider making a tax-deductible contribution to This I Believe.
Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, (61 AD – ca. AD): “better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient ashio-midori.coming to Wikipedia: “Pliny is known for his hundreds of surviving letters, which are an invaluable historical source for the time period. Many are addressed to reigning emperors or to notables such as the historian, Tacitus. STUDY GUIDE to Miracles By C.S. Lewis Introduction Lewis’ lucid, generous minded and comprehensive apologetic for miracles is, in its own way, no less compelling than Mere Christianity in the case it makes for the overall rationality of the Christian faith. Believing in Miracles. I believe that it is possible to change the world. I believe that every person yearns to make a difference but is often too scared to create the change they desire.
Epistemology, the philosophical study of the nature, origin, and limits of human ashio-midori.com term is derived from the Greek epistēmē (“knowledge”) and logos (“reason”), and accordingly the field is sometimes referred to as the theory of knowledge. Epistemology has a long history within Western philosophy, beginning with the ancient Greeks and continuing to the present.
Note: Originally entitled, “Ven. Emperor Karl I of Austria and Empress Zita,” this article was written well before Pope John Paul II’s October 3, beatification of Emperor Karl. In his canonization homily Pope John Paul said this of the new Beatus: Continue reading →.
The apostle Paul summed up his whole ministry as existing “to testify to the gospel of the grace of God” (Acts ). That single-minded goal is the heartbeat of the ESV Gospel Transformation ashio-midori.comed out of the conviction that the Bible is a unified message of God’s grace culminating in Jesus, it is a significant new tool to help readers see Christ in all of Scripture, and grace.
August 10, A popular blogsite recently reviewed Reinventing Jesus (a book I coauthored with Ed Komoszewski and Jim Sawyer [see ashio-midori.com for reviews and contents about the book]).
The review was quite positive, and as is typical on blogsites, there were a lot of comments to follow.